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Its economy is expected to expand to $2.26 trillion by 2023. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. The lira is seen remaining under pressur… https://t.co/Xry1AAkbPE, To discuss the differences between Brazil & Mexico's Covid-19 policy responses, we spoke to Marco Oviedo, head of e… https://t.co/W7jxcCF5xN, See the latest quarterly Oil & Gold price forecasts in our October Consensus Forecast Update.… https://t.co/BTP7XVXbHa, Global economic activity will shrink this year at the sharpest rate in decades, as measures to contain the spread o… https://t.co/fkA9OnQkNI, About are much higher than these two. Today, the country has a nominal GDP of $912.90 billion and a GDP-PPP of $969.23 billion.

Back in 1980, the Netherlands was the 12th-largest economy globally, with a GDP of $189.49 billion. To bolster its manufacturing strength in the current global scenario, Germany has launched Industrie 4.0—its strategic initiative to establish the country as a lead market and provider of advanced manufacturing solutions. For topics on particular articles, maintain the dialogue through the usual channels with your editor. However, it witnessed a decline in its output for five consecutive quarters starting April 2008. The country possesses around 18% of the world's proven petroleum reserves. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our. Canada registered a growth of 3% in 2017 vis-à-vis 1.4% in 2016 and is expected to grow 2% during 2018 and 2019. It is the 20th-largest economy in the world, with a nominal GDP of $703.75 billion. The country has made incredible progress in the past couple of decades to establish itself as a hi-tech, industrialized nation.

For a list of criteria, see the, Authors with multiple affiliations are attributed to each institution according to the weights they have set to each in their profile, or by default according to a formula described.

However, it is projected to soften to 4.2% in 2018 amid rising external debt, depreciating currency, rising inflation, and unemployment.

On nominal basis, For any ranking of people, only those registered with the RePEc Author Service can be taken into account. It ranks 13th on the basis of per capita income, with a GDP per capita of $53,106.38. Indonesia, the fourth most populous nation, is the seventh-largest economy, with a $3.50 trillion GDP in terms of purchasing power parity. 2.09%.

Back in 1980, China was the seventh-largest economy, with a GDP of $305.35 billion, while the size of the U.S. then was $2.86 trillion. ppp basis over the next few decades as 2nd ranked US is growing slow and 3rd ranked India is way behind. The 1990s were a rough period for its economy, since it inherited a devastated industrial and agricultural sector along with the fundamentals of a centrally planned economy.

During 2017, it declined to 9.681%.

Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. There are 8198 institutions with 60355 registered authors evaluated for all the rankings. Only the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge manage to prevent the top of the ranking from being completely dominated by the US, all three of which are based in the UK. Over the next two years, the IMF projects a growth of 2.3% and 2.7%, respectively.

Germany is not just Europe's largest economy but also the strongest. The data presented here is experimental.

Among sectors, agriculture contributes about 14% to its GDP, while industry and services add approximately 43% each to its output. Russia moves up the ladder to the sixth spot for rankings, with a $4.21 trillion GDP based on PPP.

The 2019 business and economics ranking has also expanded to include 585 universities, up from 200 last year. Originally published in December 2017, updated in January 2020. This indicator counts the number of citations received by documents from a journal and divides them by the total number of documents published in that journal. Switzerland is one of the most stable market economies in the world. For any citation based criterion, only works that could be parsed by the CitEc project are considered. The economy of the U.K. is primarily driven by the services sector, which contributes more than 75% of its GDP, with manufacturing the second prominent segment, followed by agriculture.

In recent years, the economic growth has slowed, resulting in unemployment that has placed immense pressure on the government to reboot the economy.

This list is based on the IMF's World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019. Brazil is the largest and most populous nation in Latin America. In terms of GDP in PPP, China is the largest economy, with a GDP (PPP) of $25.27 trillion. 3.

With a nominal GDP of $1.87 trillion, Brazil is the ninth-largest economy in the world. External citations are calculated by subtracting the number of self-citations from the total number of citations received by the journal’s documents. Other change in top 20 would be Turkey overtaking Saudi Arabia. IMF projects the economic growth to revive to 2.5% by 2019.

In 2019, the U.S. economy, in terms of GDP (PPP), was at $21.44 trillion, while the Chinese economy was measured at $27.31 trillion. The average rank score is determined by taking a harmonic mean of the ranks in each criterion. Evolution of the total number of citations and journal's self-citations received by a journal's published documents during the three previous years. During the 1960s, its GDP per capita was among the poorer countries in the world, which is now at the 29th spot with $31,345.62. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (USA), Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis (CAMA), Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, School of Economics and Finance, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom, Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research (IGIER), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Milano, ItalyFondazione Rodolfo DEBENEDETTI (fRDB), Milano, Italy, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA)Goizueta Business School, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (USA), National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA)Department of Economics, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania (USA), National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA)Finance Department, Stern School of Business, New York University (NYU), New York City, New York (USA), Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn, GermanyHarris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (USA), Department of Economics, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts (USA), Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium, Economics Department, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts (USA), Centre de recherche en Économie (OFCE), Sciences économiques, Sciences Po, Paris, France, Department of Economics, Oxford University, Oxford, United KingdomCentre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), Department of Economics, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, China Center for Economic Research (CCER), Peking University, Beijing, ChinaInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, District of Columbia (USA), London School of Economics (LSE), London, United Kingdom, Economics Department, Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina-Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina (USA), Nationalekonomi, Internationella Handelshögskolan, Jönköping Universitet, Jönköping, Sweden, IE Business School, Universidad IE, Madrid, Spain, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfswetenschappen, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, Cato Institute, Washington, District of Columbia (USA)Department of Economics, Lerner College of Business and Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware (USA), Finance and Economics Department, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, New York City, New York (USA)Bureau for Research in Economic Analysis of Development (BREAD), Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), Department of Finance, Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana (USA)Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana (USA), Research Department, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, District of Columbia (USA), Department of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois (USA)Eitan Berglas School of Economics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA)Department of Economics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Department of Economics, Carol Martin Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (USA), Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (USA), Department of Finance, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Economics and Finance, Gordon Lang School of Business and Economics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, London Business School (LBS), London, United Kingdom, HM Treasury, Government of the United Kingdom, London, United Kingdom, Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington, District of Columbia (USA), Finance Group, Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Business School, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York City, New York (USA), Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Centre d'analyse et de mathématiques sociales (CAMS), École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Paris, France, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Économique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon, Lyon, FranceDepartment of Economics, Sciences économiques, Sciences Po, Paris, France, UBS International Center of Economics in Society, Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakutät, Universität Zürich, Zürich, SwitzerlandWirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakutät, Universität Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland, Leerstoelgroep Ontwikkelingseconomie, Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum, Wageningen, Netherlands, Stern School of Business, New York University (NYU), New York City, New York (USA), Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Facoltà di Economia, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italy, Finance Group, Walter A. Haas School of Business, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California (USA), Nationalekonomiska Institutionen, Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden, School of Economics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, John M. Olin Center for Law, Economics, and Business, Harvard School of Law, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA)Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (USA), Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, College of Business, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois (USA), Dipartimento di Management, Facoltà di Economia "Giorgio Fuà", Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA)School of Economics, Singapore Management University, Singapore, Singapore, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines (STICERD), London School of Economics (LSE), London, United Kingdom, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (USA)Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn, Germany, Department of Economics, Business School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, Michael G. Foster School of Business, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (USA), Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, IsraelDepartment of Economics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Administration, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, Finance Department, Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA)National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi", Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines, Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Thessaly, Greece, Department of Economics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont (USA), Management School, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (USA), Department of Economics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, Economic Research, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts (USA), Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University (NYU), New York City, New York (USA), Research Division, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (USA), Department of Economics, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore, Singapore, Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (ELS), Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques (OCDE), Paris, France, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche "Marco Fanno", Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Economics, Rice University, Houston, Texas (USA), Department of Economics, Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom, Essex Business School, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom, Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business and Administration, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana (USA), Départment d'économétrie et d'économie politique (DEEP), Faculté des Hautes Études Commerciales (HEC), Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Finance Area, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (USA), College of Business, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida (USA), Abteilung für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Universität Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany, Urban Institute, Washington, District of Columbia (USA)Economics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (USA), Center for the Study of Industrial Organization (CSIO), Department of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois (USA), Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, München, Germany, Department of Economics and Finance, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois (USA), Finance Area, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (USA)Department of Economics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (USA), Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (USA)Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington, District of Columbia (USA), ICMA Centre for Financial Markets, Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom, Centre de Recerca en Economia Financera i Comptabilitat (CREFC), Departament d'Economia i Empresa, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics (Barcelona GSE), Barcelona, SpainCentre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), London, United Kingdom, W.E.
Germany is projected to cling onto fourth place, with nominal GDP of USD 4.6 trillion (2018: USD 4.0 trillion); however, like Japan, the country’s unfavorable demographics will weigh on economic momentum in the coming years.

While the economy has broken the deflationary spiral, economic growth remains muted. Same ranking by authors, institutions, countries and regions, and more rankings for , including the individual criteria used here.

U.S. Nominal GDP: $21.44 trillion - U.S. GDP (PPP): $21.44 trillion, China Nominal GDP: $14.14 trillion - China GDP (PPP): $27.31 trillion, Japan Nominal GDP: $5.15 trillion- Japan GDP (PPP): $5.75 trillion, Germany Nominal GDP: $3.86 trillion - Germany GDP (PPP): $4.44 trillion, India Nominal GDP: $2.94 trillion-India GDP (PPP): $10.51 trillion, U.K. Nominal GDP: $2.83 trillion - U.K. GDP (PPP): $3.04 trillion, France Nominal GDP: $2.71 trillion - France GDP (PPP): $2.96 trillion, Italy Nominal GDP: $1.99 trillion - Italy GDP (PPP): $2.40 trillion, Brazil Nominal GDP: $1.85 trillion - Brazil GDP (PPP): $3.37 trillion, Canada Nominal GDP: $1.73 trillion - Canada GDP (PPP): $1.84 trillion, Russia Nominal GDP: $1.64 trillion - Russia GDP (PPP): $4.21 trillion, South Korea Nominal GDP: $1.63 trillion - South Korea GDP (PPP): $2.14 trillion, Spain Nominal GDP: $1.4 trillion - Spain GDP (PPP): $1.86 trillion, Australia Nominal GDP: $1.38 trillion - Australia GDP (PPP): $1.32 trillion, Mexico Nominal GDP: $1.22 trillion - Mexico GDP (PPP): $2.57 trillion, Indonesia Nominal GDP: $1.11 trillion - Indonesia GDP (PPP): $3.50 trillion, Netherlands Nominal GDP: $902.36 billion - Netherlands GDP (PPP): $969.23 billion, Saudi Arabia Nominal GDP: $779.29 billion - Saudi Arabia GDP (PPP): $1.86 trillion, Turkey Nominal GDP: $743.71 billion - Turkey GDP (PPP): $2.29 trillion, Switzerland Nominal GDP: $715.36 billion - Switzerland GDP (PPP): $548.48 billion, Everything You Need to Know About Per Capita and Its Uses. India is the fastest-growing trillion-dollar economy in the world and the fifth-largest overall, with a nominal GDP of $2.94 trillion.

An astonishing 12 of the top 15 universities for economics & econometrics this year are based in the United States. With a graduate …

This page is part of a larger set of rankings for research items, serials, authors and institutions made available on this site. The Indonesian economy has shown tremendous progress over the last two decades. During 2006–2010, the nation grew at an average 4.5%, moderating to around 2.8% in 2011–2013. journal self-citations removed) received by a journal's published documents during the three previous years. Press Starting from 1992 until 2008, the economy of the U.K. witnessed an uptrend in each quarter. a Includes overseas territories.

The United Kingdom, with a $2.83 trillion GDP is the sixth largest economy in the world.

Its nominal GDP is estimated to remain at $2.83 trillion during 2019, but its ranking is expected to slide to the seventh spot by 2023 with its GDP of $3.27 trillion. The country remains a major exporter of olive oil, pork, and wine. The financial crisis of 2008 rocked the Japanese economy and it's been a challenging time for its economy since then.

In recent years, the pace of growth has slowed, although it remains high in comparison to its peer nations.

Under the name Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, it was founded in 1913 as the world's first journal with a focus on international economics. Automotive, oil, and electronics are among the developed industries, while financial services and tourism are prominent contributors within services.

Not every article in a journal is considered primary research and therefore "citable", this chart shows the ratio of a journal's articles including substantial research (research articles, conference papers and reviews) in three year windows vs. those documents other than research articles, reviews and conference papers. The nation has been dependent upon capital good exports, which suffered a setback post-2008 financial crisis.

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